Use your concept map or plan
Write your assignment using your map or plan to guide you. As you write, you may well get new ideas or think about ideas in slightly different ways. This is fine, but check back to your map or plan to evaluate whether that idea fits well into the plan or the paragraph that you are writing at the time. Consider: In which paragraph does it best fit? How does it link to the ideas you have already discussed?
For every paragraph, think about the main idea that you want to communicate in that paragraph and write a clear topic sentence which tells the reader what you are going to talk about. A main idea is more than a piece of content that you found while you were researching, it is often a point that you want to make about the information that you are discussing. Consider how you are going to discuss that idea (what is the paragraph plan). For example, are you: listing a number of ideas, comparing and contrasting the views of different authors, describing problems and solutions, or describing causes and effects?
Use linking words throughout the paragraph. For example:
- List paragraphs should include words like: similarly, additionally, next, another example, as well, furthermore, another, firstly, secondly, thirdly, finally, and so on.
- Cause and effect paragraphs should include words like: consequently, as a result, therefore, outcomes included, results indicated, and so on.
- Compare and contrast paragraphs should include words like: on the other hand, by contrast, similarly, in a similar way, conversely, alternatively, and so on.
- Problem solution paragraphs should include words like: outcomes included, identified problems included, other concerns were overcome by, and so on.
Some paragraphs can include two plans, for example a list of problems and solutions. While this is fine, it is often clearer to include one plan per paragraph.
Look at your plan or map and decide on the key concepts that link the different sections of your work. Is there an idea that keeps recurring in different sections? This could be a theme that you can use to link ideas between paragraphs. Try using linking words (outlined above) to signal to your reader whether you are talking about similar ideas, whether you are comparing and contrasting, and so on. The direction that your thinking is taking in the essay should be very clear to your reader. Linking words will help you to make this direction obvious.
Different parts of the essay:
While different types of essays have different requirements for different parts of the essay, it is probably worth thinking about some general principles for writing introductions, body paragraphs and conclusions. Always check the type of assignment that you are being asked to produce and consider what would be the most appropriate way to structure that type of writing.
Remember that in most (not all) writing tasks, especially short tasks (1,000 to 2,000 words), you will not write headings such as introduction and conclusion. Never use the heading ‘body’.
Writing an introduction:
Introductions need to provide general information about the topic. Typically they include:
- Background, context or a general orientation to the topic so that the reader has a general understanding of the area you are discussing.
- An outline of issues that will and will not be discussed in the essay (this does not have to be a detailed list of the ideas that you will discuss). An outline should be a general overview of the areas that you will explore.
- A thesis or main idea which is your response to the question.
Here is an example of an introduction:
It is often a good idea to use some of the words from the question in the introduction to indicate that you are on track with the topic. Do not simply recount the question word for word.
Writing the body:
- Each paragraph should make a point which should be linked to your outline and thesis statement.
- The most important consideration in the body paragraphs is the argument that you want to develop in response to the topic. This argument is developed by making and linking points in and between paragraphs.
Try structuring paragraphs like this:
- Topic sentence: open the paragraph by making a point
- Supporting sentences: support the point with references and research
- Conclusive sentence: close the paragraph by linking back to the point you made to open the paragraph and linking this to your thesis statement.
Here is an example of a body paragraph from the essay about education and globalisation:
As you write the body, make sure that you have strong links between the main ideas in each of the paragraphs.
Writing the conclusion:
This is usually structured as follows:
- Describe in general terms the most important points made or the most important linkage of ideas
- Do not include new information, therefore it does not usually contain references
- End with a comment, a resolution, or a suggestion for issues that may be addressed in future research on the topic.
Here is an example conclusion from the essay on education:
Thorough research of an essay topic is probably the biggest difference between Secondary School writing and writing at University level. Researching information for your essays may involve using various encyclopedias, reference books, course textbooks, yearbooks and searching for serial articles in journals or abstracts.
These various sources provide different types of information. The previous stages "read the question, define" and "paraphrase" will indicate to you what types of information you will need. Figure 1 shows the different steps in researching your topic and will help you identify the type of information you need.
The key to successful research lies in:
- Understanding what the question is really about.
- Knowing what resources are best suited to provide the answers.
- Knowing how to find them.
- Knowing how to use them.
Figure 1 - Where to Find Information
(Courtesy of University of Tasmania Library)
The University library is an excellent resource for students. The staff is friendly and helpful so if you have problems do not hesitate to ask the information desk for help. The library also has resource guides that are specific for each school. The Management resource guide can be found at: http://utas.libguides.com/management.
Electronic database searches can be a very useful way to find recent journal articles on the topic you are interested in. The library provides access to a number of indexing databases -- the Management resource guide provides information on which ones will be most useful. You can access the databases from any computer lab on campus, and in some cases from home or work. See the library for details.The library provides training sessions for class groups and individuals in using the library catalogue and the indexing databases. These are a worthy investment of time and an excellent introduction to the cutting edge of electronic information.
It is important to be disciplined in the way that you research your essay topic. Many students use information collecting as a form of procrastination. These people can often be seen standing for hours in front of a photocopier, hypnotised by the reassuring flash of the copier, collecting armfuls of photocopied books and articles.
In most cases very little of this material is actually used. If you have organised your time properly very little photocopying is necessary. If you make notes thoughtfully, in the light of the purpose of the essay, you will find that a structure to the essay will begin to appear and suggest itself. This is the real value of good research!
Try to organise your notes systematically (e.g. having noted the main points from each of your sources, you might re-arrange them by topic in folders, on cards, or in separate files on your computer).