The Southern Cassowary Descriptive Essay

Cassowary Location


Map of Oceania

Cassowary

The cassowary is a large species of flight-less bird, that is natively found in the forests of Papua New Guinea and on it's surrounding islands. The cassowary is closely related to other large flight-less birds including emus and ostriches and is the third tallest and second heaviest bird in the world behind these two.

The cassowary inhabits dense tropical forest on New Guinea and it's surrounding islands and parts of north-eastern Australia. There are three species of cassowary which are the Southern Cassowary or Double-wattled Cassowary, found in southern New Guinea, northeastern Australia, and the Aru Islands, the Dwarf Cassowary or Bennett's Cassowary, found in New Guinea, New Britain, and on Yapen, and the Northern Cassowary or Single-wattled Cassowary, found in northern and western New Guinea, and Yapen.

The cassowary has adapted well to a peaceful life in the depths of the forest and as a result, are rarely seen by humans who are trying to spot them. The cassowary cannot fly and so has developed the need to run and incredibly fast, as these large birds are able to sprint through the jungle at speeds of more than 30mph. The cassowary also has large, sharp claws which aid the cassowary in defending itself from danger.

The most distinctive features of the cassowary are it's large body size and brightly coloured feathers (females are both larger and more colourful than their male counterparts), and the large, spongy crest that protrudes from the top of the cassowary's head, which can grow to 18 cm in height. Although not much is really known about the purpose of these crests, it's thought that the crest of cassowary is used to assert sexual dominance, to settle disputes and also helps this bird when it is running through the thick undergrowth.

The cassowary is an omnivorous bird and therefore eats a wide variety of both plants and animals in order to gain all the nutrients that it needs to survive. Cassowaries mainly feed on fruits that have fallen to the ground from the trees, along with leaves, grasses, seeds, insects, spiders and other invertebrates.

The cassowary has adapted to a life without the need to fly due to the fact that, historically, the cassowary had no predators within it's natural environment and therefore had no need to flee. However, with human settles can mammalian predators including dogs, foxes and cats that mainly destroy the vulnerable nests of the cassowary, eating their eggs.

The cassowary breeding season is thought to be from May to June when the female cassowary lays up to 8 large, dark eggs into a nest on the ground made from leaf litter. However, the female cassowary then leaves her eggs to be incubated by the male who fiercely guards his future brood from predators for up to 50 days when the cassowary chicks hatch out of their shells.

Today, mainly due to deforestation and therefore habitat loss and the introduction of predators to the cassowary's native islands, all three cassowary species are at risk in the wild and are classified as vulnerableanimals.

Flightless birds are birds that through evolution lost the ability to fly.[1] There are over 60 extant species[2] including the well known ratites (ostrich, emu, cassowary, rhea and kiwi) and penguins. The smallest flightless bird is the Inaccessible Island rail (length 12.5 cm, weight 34.7 g). The largest (both heaviest and tallest) flightless bird, which is also the largest living bird, is the ostrich (2.7 m, 156 kg). Ostriches are farmed for their decorative feathers, meat and their skins, which are used to make leather.

Many domesticated birds, such as the domestic chicken and domestic duck, have lost the ability to fly for extended periods, although their ancestral species, the red junglefowl and mallard, respectively, are capable of extended flight. A few particularly bred birds, such as the Broad Breasted White turkey, have become totally flightless as a result of selective breeding; the birds were bred to grow massive breast meat that weighs too much for the bird's wings to support in flight.

Flightlessness has evolved in many different birds independently. There were also other families of flightless birds, such as the now extinct Phorusrhacidae, that evolved to be powerful terrestrial predators. Taking this to a greater extreme, the terror birds (and their relatives the bathornithids), eogruids, gastornithiforms, and dromornithids (all extinct) all evolved similar body shapes – long legs, long necks and big heads – but none of them were closely related. Furthermore, they also share traits of being giant, flightless birds with vestigial wings, long legs, and long necks with some of the ratites, although they are not related.[3][4]

Origins of flightlessness[edit]

Divergences and losses of flight within ratite lineage occurred right after the K-Pg extinction event wiped out all non-avian dinosaurs and large vertebrates 66 million years ago.[5] The immediate evacuation of niches following the mass extinction provided opportunities for Palaeognathes to distribute and occupy novel environments. New ecological influences selectively pressured different taxon to converge on flightless modes of existence by altering them morphologically and behaviorally. The successful acquisition and protection of a claimed territory selected for large size and cursoriality in Tertiary ancestors of ratites[6] Temperate rainforests dried out throughout the Miocene and transformed into semiarid deserts causing habitats to be widely spread across the growingly disparate landmasses. Cursoriality was an economic means of traveling long distances to acquire food that was usually low lying vegetation, more easily accessed by walking[6] Traces of these events are reflected in ratite distribution throughout semiarid grasslands and deserts today[7]

Gigantism and flightlessness are almost exclusively correlated.[clarification needed] This is mostly observed in islands lacking predators and competition. However, ratites occupy environments that are mostly occupied by a diverse number of mammals.[8] It is thought that they first originated through allopatric speciation caused by breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana.[9] However recent evidence suggests this hypothesis first proposed by Joel Cracraft in 1974 is incorrect.[10] Rather ratites arrived in their respective locations via a flighted ancestor and lost the ability to fly multiple times within the lineage.

Gigantism is not a requirement for flightlessness. The kiwi does not exhibit gigantism, along with tinamous, even though they coexisted with the moa and rhea that both exhibit gigantism. This could be the result of different ancestral flighted birds arrival or because of competitive exclusion.[11] The first flightless bird to arrive in each environment utilized the large flightless herbivore or omnivore niche, forcing the later arrivals to remain smaller. In environments where flightless birds are not present, it is possible that after the K/T Boundary there were no niches for them to fill. They were pushed out by other herbivorous mammals.[8]

New Zealand had more species of flightless birds (including the kiwi, several species of penguins, the takahe, the moa, and several other extinct species) than any other such location. One reason is that until the arrival of humans roughly a thousand years ago, there were no large land predators in New Zealand; the main predators of flightless birds were larger birds.[12]

Independent evolution of flightlessness in Paelaeognathes[edit]

Ratites belong to the superorder Palaeognathae birds, which include the volant tinamou, and are believed to have evolved flightlessness independently multiple times within their own group.[3][5][6][8] Some birds evolved flightlessness in response to the absence of predators, for example on oceanic islands. Incongruences between ratite phylogeny and Gondwana geological history indicate the presence of ratites in their current locations is the result of a secondary invasion by flying birds.[13] It remains possible that the most recent common ancestor of ratites was flightless and the tinamou regained the ability to fly[14] However, it is believed that the loss of flight is an easier transition for birds rather than the loss and regain of flight, which has never been documented in avian history.[6] Moreover, tinamou nesting within flightless ratites indicates ancestral ratites were volant and multiple losses of flight occurred independently throughout the lineage. This indicates that the distinctive flightless nature of ratites is the result of convergent evolution.[15]

Morphological changes and energy conservation[edit]

Two key differences between flying and flightless birds are the smaller wing bones of flightless birds[16] and the absent (or greatly reduced) keel on their breastbone. (The keel anchors muscles needed for wing movement.[2]).

Adapting to a cursorial lifestyle causes two inverse morphological changes to occur in the skeleto-muscular system: the pectoral apparatus used to power flight is paedorphically reduced while peramorphosis leads to enlargement of the pelvic girdle for running[17] Repeated selection for cursorial traits across ratites suggests these adaptions comprise a more efficient use of energy in adulthood[6] The name “ratite” refers to their flat sternum that is distinct from the typical sternum of flighted birds because it lacks the keel. This structure is the place where flight muscles attach and thus allow for powered flight[15] Though, ratite anatomy presents other primitive characters meant for flight such as the fusion of wing elements, a cerebellar structure, the presence of a pygostyle for tail feathers and an alula on the wing[10] These morphological traits suggest some affinities to volant groups. Palaeognathes were one of the first colonizers of novel niches and were free to increase in abundance until the population was limited by food and territory. A study looking at energy conservation and the evolution of flightlessness hypothesized intraspecific competition selected for a reduced individual energy expenditure, which is achieved by the loss of flight[18]

Some flightless varieties of island birds are closely related to flying varieties, implying flight is a significant biological cost.[citation needed][18] Flight is the most costly type of locomotion exemplified in the natural world. The energy expenditure required for flight increases proportionally with body size, which is often why flightlessness coincides with body mass[7] By reducing large pectoral muscles that require a significant amount of overall metabolic energy, ratites decrease their basal metabolic rate and conserve energy.[18][19] A study looking at the basal rates of birds found a significant correlation between low basal rate and pectoral muscle mass in kiwis. On the contrary, flightless penguins exude an intermediate basal rate. This is likely because penguins have well-developed pectoral muscles for hunting and diving in the water[18] For ground feeding birds, a cursorial lifestyle is more economical and allows for easier access to dietary requirements[6] Flying birds have different wing and feather structures that make flying easier, while flightless birds' wing structures are well adapted to their environment and activities, such as diving in the ocean.[20]

A number of bird species appear to be in the process of losing their powers of flight to various extents. These include the Zapata rail of Cuba, the Okinawa rail of Japan, and the Laysan duck of Hawaii. All of these birds show adaptations common to flightlessness, and evolved recently from flying ancestors, but have not yet fully given up the use of their wings. They are, however, weak flyers and are incapable of traveling long distances by air.[21]

Continued presence of wings in flightless birds[edit]

Although selection pressure for flight was largely absent, the wing structure has not been lost except in the New Zealand moas.[17] Ostriches are the fastest running birds in the world and emus have been documented running 50 km/hr[7] At these high speeds, wings are necessary for balance and serving as a parachute apparatus to help the bird slow down. Wings are hypothesized to have played a role in sexual selection in early ancestral ratites and were thus maintained. This can be seen today in both the rheas and ostriches. These ratites utilize their wings extensively for courtship and displays to other males.[10] Sexual selection also influences the maintenance of large body size, which discourages flight. The large size of ratites leads to greater access to mates and higher reproductive success. Ratites and tinamous are monogamous and mate only a limited number of times per year.[22] High parental involvement denotes the necessity for choosing a reliable mate. In a climactically stable habitat providing year round food supply, a male’s claimed territory signals to females the abundance of resources readily available to her and her offspring.[19] Male size also indicates his protective abilities. Similar to the emperor penguin, male ratites incubate and protect their offspring anywhere between 85–92 days while females feed. They can go up to a week without eating and survive only off fat stores. The emu has been documented fasting as long as 56 days.[7] If no continued pressures warrant the energy expenditure to maintain the structures of flight, selection will tend towards these other traits.

List of flightless birds[edit]

Many flightless birds are extinct; this list shows species that are either still extant, or became extinct in the Holocene (no more than 11,000 years ago). Extinct species are indicated with a dagger (†). A number of species that are suspected, but not confirmed to be flightless, are also included here.

Ratites[edit]

  • Ostriches
  • Emus
  • Cassowaries
  • Moa (Dinornithiformes) †
  • Elephant birds (Aepyornithiformes) †
  • Kiwis
  • Rheas

Anseriformes (waterfowl)[edit]

  • Auckland Island teal, Anas aucklandica
  • Campbell teal, Anas nesiotis
  • Steamer ducks
  • Amsterdam wigeon, Anas marecula
  • Bermuda flightless duck, Anas pachyscelus
  • Finsch's duck, Chenonetta finschi
  • New Zealand merganser, Mergus australis
  • Turtle-jawed moa-nalo, Chelychelynechen quassus
  • Small-billed moa-nalo, Ptaiochen pau
  • O'ahu moa-nalo, Thambetochen xanion
  • Maui Nui large-billed moa-nalo, Thambetochen chauliodous
  • Nēnē-nui, Branta hylobadistes † (possibly flightless or very weak flier)
  • Mihirung, Genyornis newtoni
  • California flightless sea-duck, Chendytes lawi
  • Kaua'i mole duck, Talpanas lippa
  • New Zealand geese, Cnemiornis

Galliformes (game birds)[edit]

Podicipediformes (grebes)[edit]

Pelecaniformes (pelicans, cormorants and allies)[edit]

Sphenisciformes (penguins)[edit]

  • King penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus
  • Emperor penguin, Aptenodytes forsteri
  • Adélie penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae
  • Chinstrap penguin, Pygoscelis antarctica
  • Gentoo penguin, Pygoscelis papua
  • Little blue penguin, Eudyptula minor
  • Magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus
  • Humboldt penguin, Spheniscus humboldti
  • Galapagos penguin, Spheniscus mendiculus
  • African penguin, Spheniscus demersus
  • Yellow-eyed penguin, Megadyptes antipodes
  • Waitaha penguin, Megadyptes waitaha
  • Fiordland penguin, Eudyptes pachyrhynchus
  • Snares penguin, Eudyptes robustus
  • Erect-crested penguin, Eudyptes sclateri
  • Rockhopper penguin, Eudyptes chrysocome
  • Royal penguin, Eudyptes schlegeli
  • Macaroni penguin, Eudyptes chrysolophus
  • Chatham penguin, Eudyptes sp. †

Coraciiformes (kingfishers, hornbills and allies)[edit]

Ciconiiformes[edit]

Gruiformes (cranes, rails, and coots)[edit]

  • Cuban flightless crane, Grus cubensis
  • Red rail, Aphanapteryx bonasia
  • Rodrigues rail, Erythromachus leguati
  • Woodford's rail, Nesoclopeus woodfordi (most likely flightless)
  • Bar-winged rail, Nesoclopeus poecilopterus † (probably flightless)
  • Weka, Gallirallus australis
  • New Caledonian rail, Gallirallus lafresnayanus (likely †)
  • Lord Howe woodhen, Gallirallus sylvestris
  • Calayan rail, Gallirallus calayanensis
  • Pink-legged rail, Gallirallus insignis
  • Guam rail, Gallirallus owstoni
  • Roviana rail, Gallirallus rovianae (flightless, or almost so)[24]
  • Tahiti rail, Gallirallus pacificus
  • Dieffenbach's rail, Gallirallus dieffenbachii
  • Chatham rail, Cabalus modestus
  • Wake Island rail, Gallirallus wakensis
  • Snoring rail, Aramidopsis plateni
  • Inaccessible Island rail, Atlantisia rogersi
  • Laysan rail, Porzana palmeri
  • Hawaiian rail, Porzana sandwichensis
  • Kosrae crake, Porzana monasa
  • Ascension crake, Mundia elpenor
  • Henderson crake, Porzana atra
  • Invisible rail, Habroptila wallacii
  • New Guinea flightless rail, Megacrex inepta
  • Lord Howe swamphen, Porphyrio albus
  • North Island takahē, Porphyrio mantelli
  • Takahē, Porphyrio hochstetteri
  • Samoan woodhen, Gallinula pacifica
  • Makira woodhen, Gallinula silvestris
  • Tristan moorhen, Gallinula nesiotis
  • Gough Island moorhen, Gallinula comeri
  • Tasmanian native hen,Tribonyx mortierii
  • Giant coot, Fulica gigantea (adults only; immature birds can fly)
  • Hawkins' rail, Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi
  • Snipe-rail, Capellirallus karamu †
  • Adzebills, Aptornis otidiformis and A. defossor

Mesitorniformes (mesites)[edit]

  • Brown mesiteMesitornis unicolor (possibly flightless, has not been seen flying)[25]

Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, auks)[edit]

Falconiformes (birds of prey)[edit]

Psittaciformes (parrots)[edit]

Columbiformes (pigeons, doves)[edit]

Caprimulgiformes (nightjars)[edit]

Strigiformes (owls)[edit]

Passeriformes (perching birds)[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Penguins are a well-known example of flightless birds
  1. ^"New Zealand Ecology – Moa". TerraNature. Retrieved 2007-08-27. 
  2. ^ ab"The Bird Site: Flightless Birds". Archived from the original on 2007-07-13. Retrieved 2007-08-27. 
  3. ^ abHarshman, John; Braun, Edward L.; et al. (2 September 2008). "Phylogenomic evidence for multiple losses of flight in ratite birds". PNAS. 105 (36): 13462–13467. doi:10.1073/pnas.0803242105. PMC 2533212. PMID 18765814. 
  4. ^Holmes, Bob (2008-06-26). "Bird evolutionary tree given a shake by DNA study". New Scientist.
  5. ^ abSmith, J.V., Braun, E.L. and Kimball, R.T. (2012). "Ratite non-monophyly: Independent evidence from 40 novel loci". Systematic Biology: sys067. 
  6. ^ abcdefPhillips, M. J., G. C. Gibb, E. A. Crimp and D. Penny (2010). "Tinamous and moa flock together: mitochondrial genome sequence analysis reveals independent losses of flight among ratites." Systematic biology 59: 90-107.
  7. ^ abcdNoble, J. C. (1991). "On ratites and their interactions with plants." Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 64: 85-118.
  8. ^ abcMitchell, K., Llamas B., Soubrier J., Rawlence N., Worthy T., Wood J., Lee M., Cooper A. (2014). Ancient DNA Reveals Elephant Birds and Kiwi are Sister Taxa and Clarifies Ratite Bird Evolution. Science Magazine [Internet]. [April 24, 2014, cited 2014 Oct. 28].
  9. ^Baker, A.J, Haddrath O., Cloutier A, Mcpherson J.D. (2014)
  10. ^ abcCracraft, J. (1974). "Phylogeny and evolution of the ratite birds." International journal of avian science 116: 494-521.
  11. ^{{Baker, A.J, Haddrath O., Cloutier A, Mcpherson J.D. (2014). Genomic Support for a Moa-Tinamous Clade and Adaptive Morphological Convergence in Flightless Ratites. Molecular Biology and Evolution [Internet]. [July 2014, cited 2014 Oct. 28]}}
  12. ^"New Zealand's Icon:Flightless". Archived from the original on 2007-08-18. Retrieved 2007-08-27. 
  13. ^Haddrath, O. and A. J. Baker (2012). "Multiple nuclear genes and retroposons support vicariance and dispersal of the palaeognaths, and an Early Cretaceous origin of modern birds." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences: rspb20121630.
  14. ^Harshman, J., E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, C. J. Huddleston, R. C. Bowie, J. L. Chojnowski, S. J. Hackett, K.-L. Han, R. T. Kimball and B. D. Marks (2008). "Phylogenomic evidence for multiple losses of flight in ratite birds." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 13462-7.
  15. ^ abSmith, J. V., E. L. Braun and R. T. Kimball (2012). "Ratite non-monophyly: Independent evidence from 40 novel loci." Systematic biology: sys067.
  16. ^Nudds, R. L.; Slove Davidson, J. (2010). "A shortening of the manus precedes the attenuation of other wing-bone elements in the evolution of flightlessness in birds". Acta Zoologica. 91: 115–122. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2009.00391.x. 
  17. ^ abBaker, A. J., O. Haddrath, J. D. McPherson and A. Cloutier (2014). "Genomic support for a moa-tinamou clade and adaptive morphological convergence in flightless ratites." Molecular biology and evolution: msu153.
  18. ^ abcdMcNab, B. K. (1994). "Energy conservation and the evolution of flightlessness in birds." American Naturalist: 628-42.
  19. ^ abCubo, J. and W. Arthur (2000). "Patterns of correlated character evolution in flightless birds: a phylogenetic approach." Evolutionary Ecology 14: 693-702.
  20. ^Elliott, K. "High flight costs, but low dive costs, in auks support the biomechanical hypothesis for flighlessness in penguins". PNAS. 
  21. ^Roots, Clive. Flightless Birds. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2006. 136-37. Print.
  22. ^Handford, P. and M. A. Mares (1985). "The mating systems of ratites and tinamous: an evolutionary perspective." Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 25: 77-104.
  23. ^Hunter, Laurie A (1988). "Status of the Endemic Atitlan Grebe of Guatemala: Is it Extinct?"(pdf). Condor. 90 (4): 906–912. doi:10.2307/1368847. JSTOR 1368847. Retrieved 2007-04-03. 
  24. ^Diamond, Jared (1991). "A new species of rail from the Solomon Islands and convergent evolution of insular flightlessness"(PDF). The Auk. 108 (3): 461–470. doi:10.2307/4088088. JSTOR 4088088. 
  25. ^Roots, Clive. Flightless Birds. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2006. 136-37. Print.

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