DMP follow the style adopted by the American Medical Association (AMA),* (pp39–79) which, in turn, is based on the style developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors in 1978 in Vancouver.
Reference Management systems
Users of the EndNote® software should select the JAMA reference style when preparing references for any Dove Medical Press Journal.
Please note that authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references.
Text citations: Cite references sequentially in text, tables, and legends by superscript Arabic numerals with no parentheses, eg, 1 or 3,4 or 10–15. Numbers should be placed after punctuation marks, eg, .3,4 Do not use Microsoft Word’s footnote/endnotes function to build the reference list as this can introduce errors during the typesetting process.
Reference list: List items numerically in the order they are cited in the text, eg, 4. Kapur NK, Musunuru K. Clinical efficiency and safety of statins in managing cardiovascular risk. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008;4(2):341–353. Some commonly used sample references follow.
Standard journal article:
Kapur NK, Musunuru K. Clinical efficiency and safety of statins in managing cardiovascular risk. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008;4(2):341–353.
Abbreviate names of journals according to the journals list in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=PubMed)
List all authors if six or less, otherwise list first three only, followed by "et al.":Brandén E, Gnarpe J, Hillerdal G, et al. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae on cytospin preparations from bronchiolar lavage in COPD patients and in lung tissue from advanced emphysema. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2007;2(4):643–650.
Group as author:
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679–686.
Both personal authors and an organization as author:
Munakata M, Honma H, Akasi M; for J-STOPMetS Study Group. Sexual dysfunction in 1,274 European men suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2007;4(2):415–420.
Volume with no issue but a supplement:
Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 (Suppl 2):S93–S99.
Issue with supplement:
Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology. 2002;58(12 Suppl 7):S6–S12.
Volume with part:
Abend SM, Kulish N. The psychoanalytic method from an epistemological viewpoint. IntJ Psychoanal. 2002;83(Pt 2):491–495.
Issue with part:
Ahrar K, Madoff DC, Gupta S, Wallace MJ, Price RE, Wright KC. Development of a large animal model for lung tumors. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2002;13(9 Pt 1):923–928.
Issue with no volume:
Banit DM, Kaufer H, Hartford JM. Intraoperative frozen section analysis in revision total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop. 2002;(401):230–238.
No volume or issue:
Outreach: bringing HIV-positive individuals into care. HRSA Careaction. 2002 Jun:1–6.
Type of article indicated as needed:
Lofwall MR, Strain EC, Brooner RK, Kindbom KA, Bigelow GE. Characteristics of older methadone maintenance (MM) patients [abstract]. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002;66 Suppl 1:S105.
Article published electronically ahead of the print:
Yu WM, Hawley TS, Hawley RG, Qu CK. Immortalization of yolk sac-derived precursor cells. Blood. 2002 Nov 15;100(10):3828–3831. Epub 2002 Jul 5.
Virchow R. Aetiologie der neoplastischen Geschwulst/Pathogenie der neoplastischen Geschwulste [Etiology and pathology of cancerous tumors]. Die Krankhaften Geschwulste. Berlin: Verlag von August Hirschwald; 1865:57–101. German.
Books and other monographs
Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical Microbiology. 4th ed. St Louis: Mosby; 2002.
Editor(s), compiler(s) as author:
Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, eds. Operative Obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.
Author(s) and editor(s):
Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent Pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek RR, ed. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services; 2001.
Chapter in a book:
Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002:93–113.
Conference proceedings (published):
Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13–15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.
Conference proceedings (unpublished):
Eisenberg J. Market forces and physician workforce reform: why they may not work. Poster presented at: Annual Meeting of the Association of American Medical Colleges; October 28; 1995; Washington, DC.
Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent US 20020103498. 2002 Aug 1.
Other published material
Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;Sect. A:2 (col. 4).
Ampyra® (dalfampridine) extended release tablets [prescribing information]. New York: Acorda Therapeutics, Inc; 2010.
Coumadin® (warfarin sodium) [package insert]. Princeton, NJ: Bristol-Myers Squibb; 2010.
Etsey AN. Effects of Regular Ingestion of Natural Cocoa on Testicular Histology in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats [dissertation]. Accra: University of Ghana; 2009.
Pfizer. A study in patients with non-small cell lung cancer testing if erlotinib plus SU011248 (sunitinib) is better than erlotinib alone (SUN1058). Available from: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00265317. NLM identifier: NCT00265317. Accessed August 1, 2011.
Tian D, Araki H, Stahl E, Bergelson J, Kreitman M. Signature of balancing selection in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. In press 2002.
Avoid citing a personal communication unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person, date of communication and the form of communication (e.g. verbal or written) should be cited in parentheses in the text, not as a formal reference.
Unavailable and unpublished work, including manuscripts that have been submitted but not yet accepted (e.g., “unpublished work,” “data not shown”). Instead, include those data as supplementary material or deposit the data in a publicly available database.
Journal article on the Internet:
Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 3 p.]. http://www.nursingworld.org/AJN/2002/june/Wawatch.htm. Accessed April 3, 2003.
Cancer-Pain.org [homepage on the Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.cancer-pain.org/. Accessed August 29, 2003.
*Iverson C, Christiansen S, Flanagin A, et al. AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 10th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2007.
Updated 31 August 2017
HOW TO WRITE AN AMA STYLE PAPER
How to learn AMA style? Which works to use it for? How to write a paper in AMA format? If you have faced this questions and it is hard for you to find the answers, visiting our website was a right choice, as this article will help you understand the peculiarities of the given formatting style. We know that it is quite hard to find out how to stick to this or that format, so we decided to ease your life and prepared a detailed guide on how to use AMA style.
WHAT IS AMA STYLE?
There are various writing styles, and each of them has its own origin and peculiarities. Some disciplines have created their own formatting styles; for example, APA was developed by American Psychological Association specifically for Psychology papers. Some disciplines have strict rules for formatting styles to follow, while others can use a broad range of styles. The main thing is that they should not be mixed in one paper.
It is entirely reasonable to ask why the formatting is so important, and why a few points can be taken off your grade if the required formatting is not applied. Firstly, following the formatting carefully shows that you are able to follow the given instructions. Imagine that you are going to hire a person for a job – would you like to hire someone who is not able to follow the requirements you set?
Secondly, formatting makes your piece of writing consistent. It helps to organize the ideas so that the professors or colleagues could understand them. Thirdly, it helps you to focus on the research and writing. You do not need to think how to organize your ideas since there is an established way of doing it. Those who will read your work will also know how to find this or that information in your paper.
Let us get back to what American Medical Association style is. American Medical Association style was initially created for biomedical professionals. What papers use AMA format? Nowadays it is widely used, sometimes with a few modifications, by the variety of scientific journals, different textbooks, and academic papers.
The professors in academic institutions usually provide students with AMA style rules, or the guidelines can be easily found on the universities' official websites. The rules are quite easy to follow; however, your professor may have some specific requirements. If you want to publish your work in a journal, check whether the formatting guidelines are the standard ones, as the particular journal may have some formatting requirements you can be unfamiliar with. If you are not sure that you understand how to use AMA format properly, search for the template, or ask your colleagues or an instructor for help.
MANUSCRIPT OR REFERENCE?
If you are given the assignment to write in American Medical Association format, it is better to clarify the task as it may have several meanings. Before searching for AMA style outline format, you need to figure out whether you have to format only the reference or the whole text.
If you are told that the formatting should be applied to references, it means that all the references throughout the text and the bibliography need to follow the specific guidelines. Such a requirement can frequently be provided for various kinds of writings or the presentations in classes. You can review the guidelines and the common rules; in addition, you can also try searching for short AMA format example paper, as it might help to understand how to apply this complicated format to references.
If you are given the assignment to write the whole paper in the American Medical Association format, it means that not only the references but also the entire manuscript should meet the rules of the format. In this case, you need to know how to create appropriate headings and how to capitalize them, which spacing and margins to use, and how to create tables and graphs correctly. You can also ask our professionals to provide you with AMA style example outline if you want to learn how to format the paper from a reliable source. Also, some detailed guidelines on the matter can be found below.
AMA WRITING STYLE GUIDELINES
Generally, the paper of American Medical Association format should not lack the style. It is recommended to use active voice throughout the paper, be specific, clear, and concise. It is also important to avoid figurative language, but at the same time, the paper should be interesting, and the length of sentences should vary. It will be a good idea to search for AMA style sample paper to see how the above-mentioned points can be applied.
The recommended font for the body of the paper is Times New Roman or Courier, and Arial or Tahoma should be used for figures and tables. However, keep in mind that sometimes, the same font can be required for all sections of the paper. The recommended font size is 12, as a rule.
According to official AMA style guide, you need to use one-inch margins on all pages, and the pages need to be double-spaced. The paper written in such a format has to follow the standard IMRAD pattern. Let us review AMA style paper outline for a research paper briefly.
The section, which the paper starts with, is the introduction. The introductory part usually provides the context of the paper, the hypothesis, the objective of the study, and the research question. The intro is followed by the methods part. This part includes the detailed information on study design, the participants of the study, and the outcomes. It is also important to mention the information in details so that the reader could reproduce the study.
The results and the discussion sections come next and, quite often, they are being confused. The results part should narrate the obtained results, and it needs to be specific and relevant to the hypothesis. The discussion section should instead present a critical examination of the study. It is important to discuss the research question and the hypothesis there.
The conclusion is the part that needs much attention. From the first sight, it seems hard to figure out how to write a conclusion AMA style, but the main point one has to understand is that in this part of the paper, you need to point out important aspects of the study and state the conclusions that follow from them. It is crucial not to repeat the information provided in the Introduction or Results sections, and only restate some of it if it is absolutely necessary. The conclusion can begin with the summary of the main findings and explanations for these findings.
Although this is the general AMA format outline, it is also better to consult with the instructor before you get to writing to see if he needs you to include certain parts or info that was not mentioned above.
HEADINGS IN AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION FORMATTING STYLE
There are few important thing you need to remember about the headings. Firstly, note that each level of heading throughout the paper should be written in a consistent manner. This is well shown in any AMA format template, and this way, it would be easier for the reader to distinguish between the primary and secondary headings. Secondly, there should be a minimum of 2 levels of headings, as they separate primary and secondary parts, however, there is no standard number of heading levels that should be used.
There are also things that should be avoided while creating the headings. In AMA paper format sample, you will never see an abbreviation used as a heading, even if it is explained in the text. If you need to provide the abbreviation in the heading, you need to include the explanation right away.
It is also not recommended to expand the abbreviation in the heading if it is introduced for the first time. It would be better to spell it out and introduce it at the next appearance of the abbreviation. Keep in mind, that references cannot be cited at the headings as well.
AMA WRITING FORMAT GUIDE
Searching for the information for the paper usually takes a lot of time, as the data should be relevant, taken from reliable sources, and arranged correctly. Nevertheless, it is only a half of the success as it is also crucial to format the piece of writing correctly. Let us figure out what does an AMA paper look like and what peculiarities should be considered.
- Titles. The main thing to remember about the titles in American Medical Association format is that they should be informative, concise, and should reflect the key points of the work. If you need to include the subtitle, keep in mind that it should not contain key points of the study. At the same time, it should complement the main title and provide some additional information about the content. Still, the title should be able to stand alone without any supplements. It is also important to mention that if you use quotation marks in a title or subtitle, they need to be double.
- Numbers. Indicating numbers is something one needs to pay close attention to, as it is very easy to make a mistake, which can result in a lower mark. If you do not know how to use numerals correctly and searching for information on “how to write AMA style exmaple” does not give any clear results, here are the recommendations from our professionals. Numbers are presented by numerals in most cases, but there are some exceptions: - Numbers at the beginning of the sentence; years can be an exception - Fractions - Ordinals first through ninth - Numbers that are spelled out in quotes or titles
- Abbreviations. Abbreviations should not be used in the title and subtitle. The exception is the case when a title or subtitle contains the name of the group, which is known by the acronym. You should expand the abbreviation at first appearance in the text or in the abstract.
- Capitalization The first letter of each main word in titles and subtitles needs to be capitalized. The articles, the prepositions of 3 or fewer letters and conjunctions should not be capitalized.
While reviewing AMA paper guidelines, it is also important to pay attention to the footnotes, which are allowed only on the title page. This is one of the main peculiarities of AMA style. There should be no footnotes in the text, and in the title page they are placed in the following order:
- Author affiliations
- Author’s death
- Information about the members of the group
- Author contact information
REFERENCES IN AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION STYLE
Writing a paper requires citing the sources you have used to support your thoughts, as failure to acknowledge the works published by other authors may be considered as plagiarism. American Medical Association citation style requires mentioning the information about the cited works in two places. The first one is in-text citations that should be enumerated sequentially in the order they appear in your paper. The second one is the reference list at the end of your paper. It should be a comprehensive list of references that includes detailed information about each source you have used. It will be a good idea to search for AMA style paper example to grasp the idea of how these citations should look like.
In-text citations are the notes you make in the text when you borrow a piece of information from a source provided by another author. The in-text citations are indicated with numbers. If you use a direct quotation, it should be enclosed in the quotation marks. In case the quotation is longer than four lines, it should be set off and presented in a reduced form without the quotation marks.
The superscript number that identifies that you have used a borrowed source of information should be outside of commas, periods, and quotation marks, but inside of colons and semicolons. Sometimes it happens that you need to borrow several ideas from multiple sources into single passage or sentence, in such a case, each of the sources should be identified with a unique superscript number. The numbers need to be separated by commas, and there should be no space between them.
There are also some basic rules, which can be applied to the reference list. There are three purposes of references in such a formatting style, which are to document, to acknowledge, and to direct readers to the resources. Citing has several peculiarities one needs to remember. Firstly, the cited works should be arranged in order of their appearance in the text. Moreover, in the reference list, they should appear in the numerical order. Names of the authors should be inverted, and only initials used for first and middle names. There should be no periods between the initials.
If you have faced difficulties understanding some of the points, you can either browse the Internet searching for the AMA style guidelines overview written in a simple language, or ask the professor for detailed explanations. Another option is reviewing general rules for referencing provided by our experienced team.
- The references need to be provided on the separate page at the end of the paper with the “References” header.
- They should be listed numerically in the order they appear in the text.
- The superscript number in the in-text citation should match the number of the reference stated in the list.
- The entries in the reference list need to be single-spaced.
- No comma should be put between the last name and the first initials of the writer.
AMA STYLE GUIDE ONLINE
If you have no time for dealing with the formatting of the paper and you do not really want to use the services that complete AMA writing assignments for money, you are welcome to use free online services that can format your references automatically.
- Refme. This site offers a few options for creating a bibliography in various styles, including American Medical Association. You can cite a book, a journal, a website, or a video by entering a title, an author, or a URL. This service can be considered an AMA style guide website as well, as you can find some brief instructions there.
- Bibme. Various types of sources can be cited using this service. Also, here, you can create a work in an AMA format online in a few simple steps. All you need to do is to insert the title and generate the appropriate citation.
- Citationmachine. Books, magazines, newspapers and even films can be cited with the help of this website. Also, your bibliography will be saved for you to use it later if required.
There is a great variety of services, which offer generating citations in AMA style online. However, it is always better to check the instructions that were given to you or ask for help the professional service. Another reliable option is to ask Pro-Papers experts for AMA writing style template, and you will be provided with the guide used by our experienced professionals.
ASK PRO-PAPERS TEAM FOR HELP
Pro-Papers is an excellent service, which provides help with academic writing assignments of any kind. We know that sometimes you may have not enough time for completing your task, or it is too difficult for you to deal with formatting styles and you have limited time to understand how to do AMA format properly. That is why we offer our services. We understand all the students’ needs and always manage to meet the most urgent deadlines. Our professional writers are ready to format your paper and to provide an AMA style paper template upon request, for you to see what your work should presumably look like.
Besides, every a student is free to use our service, as it is affordable for absolutely anyone. In addition, we offer a great discount system. However, you can be sure that we never neglect accuracy and quality while offering low prices. Just place an AMA style outline order with Pro-Papers, and be sure that the high-quality help will be provided timely.
AMA CITATION QUICK GUIDE
Pupils, students, and even those, who are already working, quite often face the necessity to prepare various reports, reviews, and other kinds of documents. It is quite difficult sometimes to conduct research on a chosen topic but formatting the paper according to a certain style is even harder, as there are numerous rules to follow. In this article, we will provide an explanation on how to do AMA style citation.
American Medical Association format has its own peculiarities one needs to remember, especially when it comes to the rules of referencing and citing. They are quite unusual so it comes as no surprise that you may need a help of someone who knows what is AMA format citation. We will try to provide a clear answer to this question, for you to understand not only how to cite, but also what is the purpose of it.
First of all, references are used for avoiding plagiarism. However, this is not their only role. References acknowledge the contribution made by other writers to your work. Any university assignment has to include citations if it requires borrowing other authors’ words or ideas. If you search for “AMA style university citation” unsuccessfully, visit the official website of your university since the guidelines should be provided there. Also, you can always consult with the professor, ask your peers for help, or attend the library to find the papers written in such a format. Searching for the online “AMA style guide citing a paper” will also be a good idea.
References is another way to indicate the material that has been borrowed for your research. When you provide the citation of a particular author, you respect his intellectual property rights. Actually, you are free to use a huge number of ideas and arguments that have been published by other authors, which these authors spent years researching. That is why you have to acknowledge their contribution to your assignment and follow AMA guide for citing books, journals, and other publications, provided by the experts in order to cite in a correct way. Besides, referencing is a way to support your arguments and show that you are well aware of the field in which you do the research.
If you decided to use AMA format citation maker, which is a good idea that will ease your life, you need to know what materials should be cited and which should not. The materials that should be referenced are:
- books & articles;
- newspapers & magazines;
- movies, TV programs, documentaries;
- websites and various electronic sources;
- letters, discussion forums;
The following materials should not be referenced:
- Your own observations;
- Your own experience;
- Your own conclusions and thoughts;
- Your evaluation or analysis of something;
- The so-called "common knowledge" info.
HOW TO WRITE AMA CITATION PAGE?
Before moving any further, it is first necessary to review “what is AMA style citation and reference." These are the parts of the text that indicate the “borrowed” sources. The citations need to be found in the text, and the reference list is usually placed at the end of the paper. Both citations and the references are connected by the number, which is defined by the order of their appearance in the text.
There are general formatting rules that should be followed while creating a citation page.
- It is important that the references should be arranged in numerical order, just like they are cited in the text. However, keep in mind that two references cannot go under a single number.
- The Arabic superscript numerals need to be used after the period and the comma, inside the colons and semicolons.
- The name of the author has to be followed by initials without spaces or periods. If the source has 6 authors or less, you need to state all of them; if there are more than 6 authors, include the names of the first 3 authors followed by “et al.”
- Note, that in the references, you cannot list the materials, which are not accepted for publication.
- Abbreviate the names of the journals, and use PubMed for providing the appropriate abbreviation.
As you can see, the “how to cite guidelines AMA format” are quite unusual but not that difficult to follow. However, it is important to note that for every type of source, there is a specific set of rules that have to be followed, so it is always better to check them all before you start citing.
HOW TO CITE A BOOK IN AMA FORMAT?
When making AMA style book citation, one needs to include the following information:
- - The last names of the authors, and after that, first and middle name initials.
- - The title of the chapter.
- - Last name, the first and middle initials of the authors or editors (and translators, if any)
- - The title of the book and subtitle in italics.
- - The volume and the title.
- - The edition (the 1st one is not being indicated)
- - The place of publication.
- - The year of publication.
- - Page numbers, when the specific pages are cited.
Now let us review the in-text citation rules. AMA style in-text citation is needed to tell the reader where you have taken the information from. It is used not only when the direct quote from the source is used, but also when you have summarized the information from a source or paraphrased it. You need to mark each source with the Arabic numeral in accordance with the AMA book citation format. The sources refer to those that are listed at the end of the paper. Here is the example of in-text citation in AMA format: The report found that…
HOW TO CITE A WEBSITE USING AMA STYLE?
When citing a website, one should include the following information:
- - The author (if given). - The title of the cited item (if there is no title, state the name of the organization, which owns the website).
- - The name of the website.
- - URL (make sure that the link is working).
- - The published date.
- - The updated date.
- - The date of the access.
When you need to cite the online report, the following details should be mentioned:
- 1. author or authors;
- 2. the title of the report;
- 3. URL;
- 4. published date;
- 5. the updated date;
- 6. the date of the access.
Pro-Papers team can easily provide you with an AMA format website citation example in case you want to make sure you have understood everything correctly and prevent mistakes.
AMA PAPER CITATION TIPS
Sometimes it can be quite confusing to figure out how to make AMA citation in a proper way, which is why we have prepared some useful tips that will make your life easier. First of all, the superscript numbers should be used in a numerical order, which means that the first citation will be marked with the number "1". Keep in mind, that if you need to mention the author in the text, it is necessary to state only his/her last name. It is also important to note that if you want to make AMA citation of the previously cited source, you need to reuse the superscript number. It will be also helpful for the reader if you include the page number, however, this is optional.
AMA STYLE ABSTRACT CITATION
When you need to cite only an abstract, everything depends on where you have found it. The only case you have to cite an abstract is when the whole article is unavailable. If the article is available, but you need to use only an abstract, you need to cite the full article.
The following items should be mentioned:
Author. The title of the article [Abstract Number]. The title of the journal. Year; volume: numbers of pages.
Some journals have an abstract section, and in such a case, you need to cite it in the following way:
Authors. The title of an abstract. [abstract taken from The Title of the Journal. Year; Volume: numbers of pages]. The Title of the Journal Abstract. Year; Volume: numbers of pages.
If you need to use the abstract from a conference, there are several ways to cite it:
1. The abstract is devoted to the proceedings of the conference:
Authors. The title of the presentation. The title of the proceedings; Date; The Location of the Conference. The number of the abstract.
2. The abstract is in the conference program only:
Authors. The title of the paper or the poster. The poster or a Paper presented at: The title of the meeting with the full title of the association; Date of the presentation; Location of Conference.
Since we have already mentioned the journals, it would be appropriate to consider the peculiarities of citing them. Besides, if you have no time for completing your assignment or you need to see a sample to understand how to mention sources, you are welcome to contact us and ask for AMA style citation sample, or for the professional editorial services so that our experts can cite the paper for you.
AMA STYLE FOR JOURNAL CITATIONS
- Author. Firstly, state the last name; the first and middle names need to be abbreviated to the first initials with no period between them. The period should be used at the very end.
- Title and subtitle of the journal article. The title and subtitle in American Medical Association format should be separated by a colon. Only the first word of the title and subtitle need to be capitalized. Put a period in the end.
- Title and subtitle of a journal. It is important to mention that one needs to abbreviate the journals. The necessary abbreviations can be found at PubMed. The colon should separate the title and the subtitle. The first word of the title and the subtitle, the proper nouns, and the important words have to be capitalized. There should be no periods after the words, which have been abbreviated. Write the title and the subtitle in italics and put the period in the end.
- Year. Indicate the year of the article publication and put a semi-colon, leaving no space in between.
- The volume and the issue number. Right after a semi-colon, indicate the volume number, and specify the issue number without putting space in as well.
- Pages. The first and the final page numbers used should be separated by a hyphen if the numbers go consecutively.
HOW TO CITE A PRESENTATION IN AMA FORMAT?
There is nothing complicated in citing a presentation, so there is no need to use the software that will create AMA style online citation. You can easily do it without any help, but let us provide you with some basic rules, which will make your work even easier.
If you are citing the presentation, which does not represent some original information, you need to cite the original source of information. If you are going to cite the original data, it should be treated as an unpublished material. The format is the following:
Author. The title of the presentation. Paper, Poster presented at: a place it was presented at; date, location.
As it was mentioned, the presentation belongs to unpublished materials, so it would be reasonable to provide short AMA citation format guide for unpublished materials, as you might have to deal with them a lot.
1. Forthcoming materials.
Those can be journal articles or books that have been accepted for publication but have not been published yet. Earlier, such materials were called "in press", but with a course of time, the new term appeared. It is important to note that the articles that have not been accepted for publication but were just submitted for it should not be considered forthcoming.
Here is an example AMA style citation in paper:
The author, the name of the article, the title of the journal, the edition, the type of the medium, the language, notes.
The rules for forthcoming books are almost the same, however, carefully look through the items required in the citation.
Author or editor, the title, the type of medium, the editor, the place of the publication, the publisher, language, notes.
2. Letters and other means of personal communication
Documents, which are available in an archive, can be used in AMA style citation reference list, as a rule. However, sometimes publishers do not allow including the unpublished materials to references. Most often, it is recommended to place the references to personal communications within the text, without including them into the references. Unless the materials belong to a public archive, the author who is going to cite a letter has to provide the publisher with written permission from the cited person. The permission needs to be mentioned in either “Notes” or “Acknowledgements” part. Below, you can find the items that need to be included when citing the letters or other kinds of personal communication.
The author, the connective phrase, recipient, date, language.
A manuscript is either a handwritten or a typewritten kind of work, which is not published. The peculiarity of such work is that it quite often includes the title information, so it is possible to make a citation. However, the formal title can be absent, with the publisher and a place of publication as well as a date of publication not being presented too.
From the first sight, it may seem difficult to figure out how to cite an unpublished manuscript, but it is not that hard once you look into these simple rules. Include the name of the archive or a library where the source can be found, and the number of a catalog. In case the manuscript cannot be found in a public archive, place the reference within the running text.
USING AMA FORMAT CITATION CREATOR
You can try to use one of the services that can help with citing online, as you don’t need to pay money for it and don’t need to gather all the required information.
Citethisforme can create the citation online, and all you need to do is to paste the information you have, like a title of the book, the author of the journal, etc. AMA style website citation can be created here as well.
Mickschroeder is another service, offering referencing online. Any book, journal or video can be cited here.
Kingcitation not only allows to create citations but also provides brief instruction on how to cite a video in AMA style. It happens quite often that you need to borrow some information from the video and mention this source later in the reference list, which is why this website might come pretty handy.
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AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION STYLE GUIDE
How to make a cover page for AMA? What are the peculiarities of it? Why is it so important to have? A great number of students have definitely asked themselves such questions and, sometimes, it is quite difficult to find the appropriate answers. This guide will provide you with the necessary answers and help you learn more about American Medical Association style.
Before discussing how to start an AMA format paper, let us find out more about the formatting style in question. The American Medical Association style was created for biomedical professionals but is now used in various academic works. It is necessary to mention that this style is quite minimalistic and simple. Although, the target audience of the papers formatted according to it should have a certain level of education to understand the abbreviations. AMA paper format title page will be reviewed first in this article, as it has some peculiar features that are worth knowing about.
CREATING A COVER PAGE FOR AMA FORMAT
It is compulsory to indicate the following details on the cover page: the title, the information about the author, the abstract, and the keywords. If you want to make sure that you understand how this page should look like, you can ask one of your classmates or colleagues to share and example cover sheet for AMA format. Generally, the title needs to put the main idea of your paper into simple words, but be informative enough for the readers to understand what your work will be about. If you look through any AMA style title page example, you will see that the title is located in the upper part of the page; in addition, it is centered and never underlined or italicized.
Information about the author is the next thing you should indicate. Be sure to include the first name, the middle initials, and the last name. Keep in mind that you should avoid mentioning titles and degrees. Cover sheet for AMA format must also include the name of the college, university or institution. The name of the author and the name of the institution need to be centered and double-spaced.
AMA style paper title page has one more peculiarity. As a rule, it includes an abstract, which is not typical for such widely used styles MLA or APA. An abstract has to consist of such parts as the objective of the study, the context or the background of the research, the main ideas or/and the methods used in the research, and the conclusions/results of the study. You will also need to write up to 10 keywords at the end of the abstract.
Below you can find the “sample title page AMA style”:
It is pivotal to mention that the instructions for the formatting may vary. Hence, it is better to consult with the professor before searching for “AMA style guide title page and abstract," or ask your peers for assistance. The information regarding the rules of formatting can be also found on the official website of your college or university. Another option is to visit the library in order to take a look at the works completed by other students and use any of the works as an AMA title page format example or the sample for any other properly formatted parts of the paper.
WRITING AN AMA PAPER INTRODUCTION
Before proceeding to the content of the introduction, let us review the formatting rules, which are peculiar for American Medical Association style. First of all, it is important to mention that the active voice should be used. In order to make the work interesting, one needs to vary the length of sentences, and, of course, be clear and specific.
As for the font, it is recommended to use Times New Roman or Courier, and the size should be 12 for the whole piece of writing. The paper should be double-spaced, with one-inch margins. It is vital to mention that the enumeration should begin with the title page.
AMA style introduction is an important part, as it has to provide the essential information and motivate the reader to familiarize oneself with your work. Generally, in the introduction, you need to explain why your research is important. To write an intro in an appropriate way, it is recommended to abide by the following rules:
1. Try to convince the reader that your paper is worth reading and give a brief overview of it. To draw the readers' attention, you may start your American Medical Association style introduction with a question, an argumentative statement, or theory. If you have troubles with the hooks mentioned, you are free to choose the other options you find more effective.
2. Provide a clear argument.
Since you are writing an academic paper, keep in mind that you need to provide a clear argument and you have to do it as early in the paper as possible.
3. State the contribution, which your paper makes to the field of study.
When you write a scholarly paper, you need to remember that its main aim is to show how it contributes to the particular field of study. The research you conduct has to contribute to the field, and the introduction has to show the way you do it.
4. Provide the definition for the terms you have used.
The audience may not be familiar with some of the terms and concepts you have used in your paper, so it is important to provide the explanation in the introduction or a glossary if allowed.
HOW TO WRITE AN AMA STYLE CONCLUSION?
The conclusion of the paper plays a vital role, as it sums up all the important points made in the work. We have prepared the information that would greatly help you in writing your conclusion in American Medical Association format.
To make your conclusion successful, try walking in the reader’s shoes. If you were a reader, you would surely like to know how exactly you could benefit from checking the provided work. This is actually your opportunity to show how well you are aware of the field of research. In order to show it, you need to:
1. Highlight the main points of your work, and try to summarize all the issues presented in your paper.
2. Prove that the study you have conducted is truly significant. In the conclusion, you need to provide the answers to a "so what?" questions in the context of the past research in the same field.
3. Mention, whether you have filled a certain gap in the literature, and in what way.
4. Suggest a new approach to resolving the problem, but try to avoid providing new information.
AMA REFERENCE GUIDE
It is quite important to understand not only how to write AMA references, but the significance of referencing at all. The thing is that referencing is crucial if one wants to do a successful research. It shows that you have a thorough understanding and knowledge of the subject, makes your argument much stronger, and shows your ability to meet the academic requirements. Also, one of the most important things is that using references helps to avoid plagiarism.
AMA style reference page example demonstrates that the sources are usually presented at the end of the paper, before the appendices, and all the references are arranged in the numerical order, and in the order they appear in the paper. All the sources you mention need to be single-spaced, and should not be indented.
You may need to reference various types of sources, but regardless of the type, there are some rules that should be followed. For example, it is not allowed to separate the last name and the first initials of the author or editor by a comma. Also, if you have taken information from the specific page or a few, you need to indicate these pages at the end of the reference. Let us consider the rules of reference list formatting in details.
As it was already mentioned, the list of references in American Medical Association style should be written on a separate page at the end of the paper. In the references, one needs to provide as much information about the source as possible.
- While referencing the book with one author, you need to include the following items:
Author, The Title of the Book. Location: The Publisher; Year: Page-Page.
Smith, John. How to format references in AMA format. New York, IN: Book House; 2010:87-89.
- American Medical Association style offers such format for citing the journals and other periodicals:
Author, The title of the article, The Title of the journal (abbreviated). Year; Volume: Page-Page.
Dawson AN. Essay writing guidelines. Writing Expert. 2014;19(1):12-14.
- If the book with more than 6 authors needs to be cited, indicate the first three authors at the beginning.
West KN, Mayer RV, Stevenson FB, et al. Mastering the Art of Writing. Detroit, Michigan: The World; c2012:56-68.
Indicating an AMA style online source, it is crucial to remember several rules:
- If you have to cite an electronic book in AMA, the details that need to be mentioned are the same as for the printed book, but after indicating the pages, you need to put a period, state the URL, put one more period, and indicate the accessed date.
Taylor RC, Aniston MB. Sample reference page of AMA style. New York, NY: Education; 2009:36-39. http://electronic-books-online.com. Accessed March 11, 2017.
- The following items need to be stated if you need to cite the electronic journal article:
Author, The title of the article. The title of the journal (abbreviated);Volume:Page-Page.
Davis R. The importance of formatting. Easy Writing. 2010; 110(4):28-36. http://journals.com/writing. Published November 2010. Accessed March 11, 2017.
We hope that this AMA quick reference guide will be helpful and will save your time and efforts.
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HOW TO WRITE PAPERS IN AMA FORMAT?
One can hardly find a student who has never faced difficulties with formatting the paper. Before writing AMA style essay, one needs not only to search for relevant materials and think over his arguments and opinion but also to get familiar with the rules of AMA style. Formatting is really important inside and outside the college, sometimes even more important than the content of the document. At times, it happens that the work can be sent back to the student unread due to mistakes in formatting. For you not to waste time searching for “AMA style article examples” and figuring out the specifics of the style, we decided to create a guide that will help to avoid common mistakes and make your work perfect.
HOW TO WRITE AN ABSTRACT FOR AN AMA PAPER?
Most of the works start with an abstract, and it is crucial to know how to write it in a proper way as it will make the first impression on the reader. In American Medical Association style, the abstract is usually placed after the title page, and it should cover such sections as the objective of the study, the context and the background of the research. It is also vital to mention the main ideas and the method of the study. In the end, one needs to add either the results or conclusions of the conducted study. It is also necessary to add keywords at the end of the abstract. The required word count is 150 as a rule, but it is something worth specifying with the professor.
These are the standard rules that should be followed while writing the abstract; however, the requirements can vary. More information can also be found on the official website of your college or university.
INTRODUCTION OF AMA FORMAT ESSAY
The next important part of the paper is an introduction, which has to comprise the brief overview of your work. American Medical Association format has the following requirements for the introduction:
- It should be double-spaced;
- It should have 1-inch margins;
- 12-point Times New Roman font should be used;
- The paragraphs should be indented, 1,5 inches.
The requirements to the content of the AMA essay introduction are quite simple, and the main one is that it should be engaging for the reader to encourage him/her to read the rest of the essay. It is up to you to choose the info that will draw the reader's attention but keep in mind that such information should not be totally new to the audience, and needs to show or lead to presenting your point. Searching for AMA format essay example can be helpful for generating some ideas, but make sure you are not plagiarizing them.
The simple summary is also a good way to create an engaging and interesting introduction. Yet, the point is that each sentence of the summary needs to lead to the thesis, which implies that the info has to get more specific. Finally, end your introduction with a good thesis statement. You are welcome to check the sample AMA style essay paper to see how the introduction might be written and understand how exactly the info should be presented in this section of the paper. The formatting of the other sections of the essay is rather guidelines-specific, which is why you should rely on the instructions that your teacher has provided entirely.
AMA STYLE research paper
A research paper is an assignment the students have to inevitably deal with during their studies, and not all of the students find such a task a very easy one. One of the main difficulties is formatting the work since even the minor mistake can result in a lower grade. Below, you will find the useful information about the peculiarities of AMA style research paper.
Speaking about the AMA format, it is important to mention the following rules:
- 1-inch margins need to be used on all pages.
- The document has to be double-spaced.
- Left-justified paragraphs.
- Each page, starting from the cover page, needs to be enumerated.
- The first line has to be 0.5-indented.
- The recommended font for the body of the paper is Times New Roman or, sometimes, Courier.
Writing a research work obviously requires doing some research, which means that you need to investigate your topic using relevant books, magazines, journals, and the Internet. It is important to note that all the selected materials should be listed at the end of the document according to AMA style.
Before proceeding to the paper writing, one needs to pick the topic. It is great when the professor has already given it, but if he has not, one needs to think carefully about the topic to write on. In order to succeed with your work, choose the topic that is interesting to you. The topic should be indicated on the title page, and you will most likely need to include an abstract on the next page to briefly explain what your work is about. You may look through any AMA style research paper template to understand how these parts should look like.
The body of the paper requires using in-text citations and omitting them will mean that your writing is plagiarized. In American Medical Association style, the cited phrases should be marked with superscript numbers, for example: "According to the study…” and in the reference section, the sources need to be arranged in the order they appear in the text.
The research paper starts with an intro, which has to be concise and clear. There is one tip that will help you not to miss the important points while writing an introduction: just write it after you have finished working on the other parts. The intro should end with a thesis statement, which will help the reader to understand the goal you are trying to reach by conducting the research.
After that, you need to concentrate on the methodology part. In this section, you need to provide an overview of the methods and the equipment used for conducting the research. Here, you also need to describe how the calculations were performed.
Do not forget about the results section. It is necessary to narrate the results here, not to interpret them. Also, it might be better to add charts and graphs to present the data. The interpretation needs to be provided in the Discussion section. In this part, you need to discuss whether your experiment was successful or not, and how it contributes to the field.
The conclusion part is actually a combination of the results and discussion parts. It has to summarize your research in a clear way. You can also state the questions that remained unanswered and provide some suggestions to resolving them. As a rule, the work ends with the references.
HOW TO MAKE A BIBLIOGRAPHY AMA STYLE?
It is important to consider the bibliography in detail as each formatting style has its own peculiarities. The bibliography is important for showing that your paper is not plagiarized, which is why it is essential to indicate the sources of the borrowed ideas. The list of sources used also helps the readers to get all necessary information about the book, article, etc. so that it would be easier for them to find it.
Sometimes you may be required to prepare an annotated bibliography. It takes time to figure out how to format annotated bibliography in AMA style, however, there is nothing complex about it. Annotated bibliography is a list of the sources used in the work with a brief overview of each. The content of the annotation will depend on the assignment given. You can be asked to analyze, summarize, evaluate, or critique the sources. Such kind of assignment has several purposes:
- to make literature review of the specific field;
- to demonstrate the quality of reading you have performed;
- to show the full scope of the provided sources;
- to point out the sources, which can be interesting to other researchers and readers;
- to organize the sources for the research that will be conducted further.
The summary of one source should not include more than one paragraph but keep in mind that you should stick to the specific guidelines if you were given any. Also note, that the information from the title of the book, article, etc., needs to be omitted in the annotation.
According to AMA, the sources in the bibliography need to be formatted in the following way
• The book with the single author:
James NR. AMA format bibliography example. California, CA: Education; c2010:55-65.
• The book with seven and more authors:
Morison NB, Smith GF, Rose AP, et al. Nursing. Michigan, MI: Morison’s House; c2015: 69-82.
• The chapter of the book:
Kelly GA, The importance of formatting. In: Howard B, ed. Formatting in Academic Writing. Boston, MA; 2001:55-135.
• Electronic book:
Sally RD, AMA Style research paper example. Jackson, MS: World Books; 2003:23-42. http://world-books.com/amapaperformatting. Accessed November 12, 2015.
• The journal with one to six authors:
Miller GN, Davidson MB, Heard AT. The peculiarities of writing a research paper. Writing Guide. 2013;20(1): 25-45.
• The journal with seven or more authors:
Smith DR, Pitt MJ, Brown MA, et al. Formatting in Writing. Journal of Formatting. 2014;12(1):23-38.
• Electronic journal article:
Jackson AR. Everything you have to know about AMA. AMA Style Online Articles. 2011;10(2):56-78. http:// bestjournals.comm/everything-you-have-to know. Published September 2011. Accessed December 10, 2012.
• The webpage:
Jordan RT. The Art of Writing. Guidelines for Everyone. https://guidelines-for-everyone.com/the-artt. Published May 20, 2010. Accessed October 4, 2011.
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